Nature of Biological materials: Polymeric reaction, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleotide, nucleic acid, oxidation-reduction properties. pH, pK and buffering, isomerism, types of chemical bonds, and hydrophilic hydrophobic groups in biomolecules, nemotransmatters, hormones and growth factors, high energy biomolecules (ATP, GTP & Creatine phosphate)
Perspectives of biological macromolecules: The repeating units in nucleic acids and proteins, helicity, bending, looping pleats, salt bridges, etc. and their determinants, basis for intermolecular interactions with example, enzymesubstrate and antigen-antibody reactions, salient features of biochemical reactions involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids, fatty acids and nucleotides.
Enzymes, Protein and non-protein enzymes: Classification and nomenclature of enzymes, regulation of enzyme activity, coenzymes structure and function of Coenzyme I and Coenzyme A; kinetics of enzyme catalysed reactions; isolation and purification of enzymes; enzymes in food processing, medicines, and production of chemical compounds.
Bio-energetics: Laws of thermodynamics (1st & 2nd laws), electrical properties of biological compartments, electrochemical gradients, membrane potential, chemiosmotic hypothesis.
Energetics of a living body: Sources of heat limit to temperature, heat dissipation and conservation; Lambert-Beer law, spectrophotometry nad collorimetery, primary events in photosynthesis, strategies of high reception in microbes, plants and animals, correction of vision bulb generation and reception of sonic vibrations, hearing aids
Electrical properties of biological compartments: Electricity as a potential signal.
Intra and intermolecular interactions in biological system: Space and charge compatibility as determinant of such interactions.