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Covi 19 Management by Dr. Manoj Kumar Katual

Covid-19 Management

Abstract

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2(SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China, and has since spread globally, resulting in the 2019–20 corona virus pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include muscle pain, sputum production, diarrhoea, sore throat, and loss of smell and taste. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. As of 25 March 2020, the overall rate of deaths per number of diagnosed cases is 4.5 percent, but it in fact ranges from 0.2 percent to 15 percent according to age group and other health problems. The virus is typically spread during close contact and via respiratory droplets produced when people cough or sneeze. Respiratory droplets may be produced during breathing but it is not considered airborne. It may also spread when one touches a contaminated surface and then their face. It is most contagious when people are symptomatic, although spread may be possible before symptoms appear. The virus can live on surfaces up to 72 hours. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between two and fourteen days, with an average of five days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Recommended measures to prevent infection include frequent hand washing, social distancing (maintaining physical distance from others, especially from those with symptoms), covering coughs and sneezes with a tissue or inner elbow, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of masks is recommended by some national health authorities for those who suspect they have the virus and their caregivers, but not for the general public, although simple cloth masks may be used by those who desire them. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19. Management involves treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the 2019–20 corona virus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 30 January 2020and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. Local transmission of the disease has been recorded in many countries across all six WHO regions.

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