Molecular basis of life: Structure of DNA (Watson & Crick model, B DNA and Z DNA in detail): DNA replication both prokaryotes and eukaryotic, DNA recombination molecular mechanisms prokaryotic and eukaryotic.
Insertion elements and transposons. (composite, transposons, Tn 3 transposons)
Organisation of genetic material: Split genes; overlapping genes; pseudo genes; cryptic genes.
Genetic code: Properties of genetic code eodon assignment (chain initiation and chain termination codons), wobble hypothesis.
Structure of prokaryotic genes: Prokaryotic transcription; prokaryotic translation prokaryotic gene expression (lac up catabolic repression).
Structure of eukaryotic genes: Eukaryotic transcription; eukaryotic translation
Prokaryotic gene regulation: operon model for regulation of lac genes: positive control of the lac operon: molecular details of lac operon : regulation of trp operon.
Eukaryotic gene expression: levels of control of gene expression: RNA processing. Transport, MRNA translation, MRNA degradation (nucleases, RNA processing. Transport, MRNA translation, MRNA degradation (nucleases, AU rich sequences) and protein degradation controls (ubiquitin molecule).
Molecular mapping of genome: genetic and physical maps, molecular marker for genomic analysis (RFLP, RAPD, VNTR, STRs).
Genome sequencing: methods of genome sequencing (Maxam and Gillbert method, Sanger method).