History and development of microbiology : Pasteur’s experiments, concept of sterilization, methods of sterilization (dry, heat, wet heat, radiation, chemical, and filtration etc.), microscopy (optical, TEM and SEM EM staining of specimen), concept of microbial species and stains; growth curve, various forms of micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, PPLOs); nature of microbial cell surface gram positive and gram negative bacteria (Differneces), fimbria flagella, sero typing, nutritional classification of microorganisms (Autotroph, heterotroph, chemotrophs parasitic in bacteria & fungi.
Genetic homogeneity in clonal populations: Isolation of auxotrophs (replica plating technique and analysis of mutations in biochemical by selection.
Control of microorganisms: Physical agents, chemical agents, antibiotics and other chemotherapeutic agents (sulphonamides, penicillin, streptomycin).
Microbial agents of diseases: Bacterial (staph lococal, streptococci, mycotobactrium), viral (TMV, HIV), fungal (General) and protozoan-malaria.
Microbes in extreme environments: The thermophiles & alkalophiles, pathogenic microorganisms (general in bacteria, virus), defense mechanism Micro organisms, symbiosis and antibiosis differences) among microbial population, N2-fixing microbes in agriculture and forestry (Nif genes, Anotobactria, Blue green algai).
Industrial microbes and their uses: Production of food (Dairy and SPC) and drugs (Antibiotics-with special reference to penicillin & streptomycin), fermentation products, a survey of products from microorganism. (GEMS- useful proteins, crop production).