Microscopy: Simple microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, florescence and electron microscopy (TEM and SEM)
Instruments, basis principles and usage: pH meter, absorption and emission spectroscopy, principle and law of absorption and radiation, use of densitometry, fluorimetry, colorimetry, spectrophotometry (visible, uv, infrared), manometry, polarography, centrifugation, atomic absorption, IR, NMR, X-ray crystallography.
Chromatography techniques: Paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, colomn chromatography, gas chromatography, affinity chromatography, gel filtration, chromotography, ion exchange (paper gel etc.)
Electrophoresis: SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis, immunoelectro-phoriss, isoelectric focussing.
Fermentaton: Different type of fermenters: principle operating, characteristics of fermenters, computer control of fermentation process.
Radioisotope tracer techniques and autoradiography.